The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng Chiao, Paolo CoppiElisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard Kelley, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Ashley King, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Shu Koyama, Katsuji Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Grzegorz Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric Miller, Jon Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Harvey Moseley, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Toshio Murakami, Richard Mushotzky, Ryo Nagino, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Masaharu Nomachi, Steve ODell, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stephane Paltani, Arvind Parmar, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Martin Pohl, F. Scott Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Brian Ramsey, Christopher Reynolds, Helen Russell, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Hiroaki Sameshima, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shinichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Keisuke Tamura, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiro Ueno, Shinichiro Uno, Meg Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor De Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel Wik, Dan Wilkins, Brian Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Atsumasa Yoshida, Takayuki Yuasa, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

185 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-121
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume535
Issue number7610
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 06-07-2016

    Fingerprint

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Aharonian, F., Akamatsu, H., Akimoto, F., Allen, S. W., Anabuki, N., Angelini, L., Arnaud, K., Audard, M., Awaki, H., Axelsson, M., Bamba, A., Bautz, M., Blandford, R., Brenneman, L., Brown, G. V., Bulbul, E., Cackett, E., Chernyakova, M., Chiao, M., ... Zoghbi, A. (2016). The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. Nature, 535(7610), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18627