Three-port (one incision plus two-port) endoscopic mitral valve surgery without robotic assistance

Toshiaki Ito, Atsuo Maekawa, Satoshi Hoshino, Yasunari Hayashi, Sadanari Sawaki, Junji Yanagisawa, Masayoshi Tokoro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: Totally endoscopic minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) is technically demanding and often performed with robotic assistance. We hypothesized that three-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) would facilitate endoscopic MIMVS and evaluated its feasibility and safety. METHODS: From October 2010 to June 2016, we performed first-time MIMVS in 250 consecutive patients (122 male), with median age of 65 years (54-73 years, 25-75 percentile). The thoracic access ports comprised one small (3-5 cm) thoracotomy without a rib spreader plus two trocars (one for the endoscope and one for left-handed instruments), thus establishing triangular three-port VATS. Cannulas, an aortic clamp, and a left atrial retractor were inserted through the thoracotomy, and right-handed instruments were inserted through the remaining space. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established through a groin incision. RESULTS: The etiology of the mitral valve lesion was myxomatous degeneration in 70% of patients, rheumatic disease in 9%, infectious endocarditis in 6%, and other conditions in 15%. Mitral valve repair was performed in 233 patients and replacement in 27. Two patients underwent conversion to replacement after attempted repair. Forty-nine patients underwent tricuspid annuloplasty, and 45 underwent the Maze procedure. One in-hospital death occurred within 30 days. Two patients developed stroke, three underwent re-exploration for bleeding, one developed low output syndrome, and one required new haemodialysis. The aortic clamp, bypass, and total operation times were 119 (94-149), 166 (134-200) and 237 (204-285) min, respectively, median (25-75%). The 5-year survival and reoperation-free rates were 98.3% ± 0.9% and 96.9% ± 1.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Three-port endoscopic MIMVS appears reproducible and safe.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberezw430
Pages (from-to)913-918
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 01-05-2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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