Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important problem in liver transplantation. Thrombomodulin (TM), an effective drug for disseminated intravascular coagulation, is also known to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect through binding to the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1) known as a proinflammatory mediator. We examined the effect of recombinant human TM (rTM) on a partial warm hepatic IRI model in wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) KO mice focusing on the HMGB-1/TLR-4 axis. As in vitro experiments, peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with recombinant HMGB-1 protein. The rTM showed a protective effect on liver IRI. The rTM diminished the downstream signals of TLR-4 and also HMGB-1 expression in liver cells, as well as release of HMGB-1 from the liver. Interestingly, neither rTM treatment in vivo nor HMGB-1 treatment in vitro showed any effect on TLR-4 KO mice. Parallel in vitro studies have confirmed that rTM interfered with the interaction between HMGB-1 and TLR-4. Furthermore, the recombinant N-terminal lectin-like domain 1 (D1) subunit of TM (rTMD1) also ameliorated liver IRI to the same extent as whole rTM. Not only rTM but also rTMD1 might be a novel and useful medicine for liver transplantation. This is the first report clarifying that rTM ameliorates inflammation such as IRI in a TLR-4 pathway–dependent manner.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pharmacology (medical)