Background: We investigated whether early initiation of hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B cartridge (PMX) after the diagnosis of septic shock could improve the clinical outcome. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, multicenter cohort study was performed at intensive care units in Japan. 41 patients received PMX within 6 h after the diagnosis of septic shock (early group) and 51 patients were treated after 6 h (late group). Results: The early group had a significantly shorter duration of ventilator support and also had a lower catecholamine requirement. PMX was effective for improvement of hypotension, hypoperfusion, the sequential organ failure assessment score, and pulmonary oxygenation regardless of the timing of its initiation. The 28-day mortality rate did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Early initiation of PMX shortened the duration of ventilator support and also reduced the catecholamine requirement, so early treatment of septic shock should achieve a better outcome.
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