Tolvaptan's Association with Low Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

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Abstract

Introduction: Furosemide, a loop diuretic, is often empirically used to treat acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) initially. Conversely, decongestion using tolvaptan, an aquaretic, is thought to maintain renal function compared to furosemide. However, it has not been investigated in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) at high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to investigate AKI incidence using tolvaptan add-on treatment, compared to increased furosemide treatment for patients with ADHF complicated by advanced CKD. Methods: We retrospectively studied patients with advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <45 mL/min/1.73 m2) who developed ADHF under outpatient furosemide treatment. The exposure was set to tolvaptan add-on treatment, and the control was set to increased furosemide treatment. Results: Of the 163 patients enrolled, 79 were in the tolvaptan group and 84 in the furosemide group. The mean age was 71.6 years, the percentage of males was 63.8%, the mean eGFR was 15.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, and patients with CKD stage G5 were 61.9%. AKI incidence was 17.7% in the tolvaptan group and 42.9% in the furosemide group (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.34 [0.13-0.86], p = 0.023 in multivariate logistic regression analysis). Persistent AKI incidence was 11.8% in the tolvaptan group and 32.9% in the furosemide group (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.34 [0.10-1.06], p = 0.066 in the multinomial logit analysis). Conclusion: This study suggests that tolvaptan may be better than furosemide in patients with ADHF experiencing complicated advanced CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-328
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Volume54
Issue number7-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

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