Training model for control of an internal carotid artery injury during transsphenoidal surgery

Jun Muto, Ricardo L. Carrau, Kenichi Oyama, Brad A. Otto, Daniel M. Prevedello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: As the adoption of endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) continues to proliferate, increasing numbers of internal carotid artery (ICA) injuries are reported. The objective of this study was to develop a synthetic ICA injury-training model that could mimic this clinical scenario and be portable, repeatable, reproducible, and without risk of biological contamination. Methods: Based on computed tomography of a human head, we constructed a synthetic model using selective laser sintering with polyamide nylon and glass beads. Subsequently, the model was connected to a pulsatile pump using 6-mm silicon tubing. The pump maintains a pulsatile flow of an artificial blood-like fluid at a variable pressure to simulate heart beats. Volunteer surgeons with different levels of training and experience were provided simulation training sessions with the models. Pre- and posttraining questionnaires were completed by each of the participants. Results: Pre- and posttraining questionnaires suggest that repeated simulation sessions improve the surgical skills and self-confidence of trainees. Conclusion: This ICA injury model is portable; reproducible; and avoids ethical, biohazard, religious, and legal problems associated with cadaveric models. A synthetic ICA injury model for EEA allows recurring training that may improve the surgeon's ability to maintain endoscopic visualization, control catastrophic bleeding, decrease psychomotor stress, and develop effective team strategies to achieve hemostasis. Level of Evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 127:38–43, 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-43
Number of pages6
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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