Trajectory analyses to identify persistently low responders to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective multicentre controlled study, J-COMBAT

Kenji Watanabe, Masanori Nojima, Hiroshi Nakase, Toshiyuki Sato, Minoru Matsuura, Nobuo Aoyama, Taku Kobayashi, Hirotake Sakuraba, Masakazu Nishishita, Kaoru Yokoyama, Motohiro Esaki, Fumihito Hirai, Masakazu Nagahori, Sohachi Nanjo, Teppei Omori, Satoshi Tanida, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Kei Moriya, Atsuo Maemoto, Osamu HandaNaoki Ohmiya, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Shinichiro Shinzaki, Shingo Kato, Toshio Uraoka, Hiroki Tanaka, Noritaka Takatsu, Atsushi Nishida, Junji Umeno, Masanao Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Mishima, Mikihiro Fujiya, Kenji Tsuchida, Sakiko Hiraoka, Makoto Okabe, Takahiko Toyonaga, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Akira Andoh, Yoshio Hirota, Tadakazu Hisamatsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The degree of immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients based on actual changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres over time is unknown. Methods: Data were prospectively acquired at four predetermined time points before and after two vaccine doses in a multicentre observational controlled study. The primary outcome was humoral immune response and vaccination safety in IBD patients. We performed trajectory analysis to identify the degree of immune response and associated factors in IBD patients compared with controls. Results: Overall, 645 IBD patients and 199 control participants were analysed. At 3 months after the second vaccination, the seronegative proportions were 20.3% (combination of anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF]α and thiopurine) and 70.0% (triple combination including steroids), despite that 80.0% receiving the triple combination therapy were seropositive at 4 weeks after the second vaccination. Trajectory analyses indicated three degrees of change in immune response over time in IBD patients: high (57.7%), medium (35.6%), and persistently low (6.7%). In the control group, there was only one degree, which corresponded with IBD high responders. Older age, combined anti-TNFα and thiopurine (odds ratio [OR], 37.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.64–251.54), steroids (OR, 21.47; 95%CI, 5.47–84.26), and tofacitinib (OR, 10.66; 95%CI, 1.49–76.31) were factors associated with persistently low response. Allergy history (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04–0.68) was a negatively associated factor. Adverse reactions after the second vaccination were significantly fewer in IBD than controls (31.0% vs 59.8%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Most IBD patients showed a sufficient immune response to COVID-19 vaccination regardless of clinical factors. Assessment of changes over time is essential to optimize COVID-19 vaccination, especially in persistently low responders. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1015-1029
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Gastroenterology
Volume58
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gastroenterology

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