Skeletal muscle is composed of heterogeneous populations of myofibers classified as slow- and fast-twitch fibers. Myofiber size and composition are drastically changed in response to physiological demands. We previously showed that transcriptional cofactor vestigial-like (Vgll) 2 is a pivotal regulator of slow muscle gene programming under sedentary conditions. However, whether Vgll2 is required for skeletal muscle adaptations after chronic overload is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of Vgll2 in chronic overload-inducing skeletal muscle adaptations using synergist ablation (SA) on plantaris. We found that Vgll2 is an essential regulator of the switch towards a slow-contractile phenotype and oxidative metabolism during chronic overload. Mice lacking Vgll2 exhibited limited fiber type transition and downregulation of genes related to lactate metabolism and their regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α1, after SA, was augmented in Vgll2-deficient mice compared with in wild-type mice. Mechanistically, increased muscle usage elevated Vgll2 levels and promoted the interaction between Vgll2 and its transcription partners such as TEA domain1 (TEAD1), MEF2c, and NFATc1. Calcium ionophore treatment promoted nuclear translocation of Vgll2 and increased TEAD-dependent MYH7 promotor activity in a Vgll2-dependent manner. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Vgll2 plays an important role for functional adaptation of skeletal muscle to chronic overload.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology