Objectives: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) immediately after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for prostate cancer (CaP).Methods: The present retrospective study included 65 CaP patients who underwent HIFU alone and 64 patients who underwent TURP immediately after HIFU. HIFU treatment was carried out using a Sonablate-500 HIFU device (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the occurrence of urinary complications, such as urethral stricture during follow-up, were statistically compared between groups.Results: Clinical stage tended to be lower for the HIFU+TURP group (P=0.0311), but none of the preoperative parameters differed significantly between groups. Both catheterization time (P<0.0001) and post-treatment IPSS (P<0.0001) at 6, 12, and 24months after treatment differed significantly between groups. Urethral strictures were noted in 16 (24.6%) of the HIFU-only patients and seven (10.9%) of the HIFU+TURP patients. Bladder neck contracture was noted in 11 (68.8%) of the patients with urethral stricture in the HIFU-only group, but in just two (28.6%) of the patients with urethral stricture in the HIFU+TURP group. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that TURP resection volume (P=0.0118) was a strong factor for the prevention of urethral stricture.Conclusions: Our results suggest that combining HIFU with an immediately following TURP improves post-treatment urinary status without causing additional morbidity.
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