The requirements for a diagnosis of Goodpasture's syndrome (GPS) include: (1) the presence of glomerulonephritis, (2) alveolar bleeding, and (3) the presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody). Among Japanese case, the 2 patients reported here were rare in that they satisfied all of these requirements. In case 1 (a 40-year-old male), the disease developed with initial signs of proteinuria and hematuria. The patient developed hemoptysis after hospitalization. The interval from onset to hospitalization was 38 days. The serum creatinine (CRN) level was 3.6 mg/dl on admission. The pathological findings were rated as full-circumferential, cellular crescentic nephritis, and the patient did not display oliguria. The renal and pulmonary impairments in this case were markedly improved by glucocorticoid (prednisolone PSL, 60 mg/day), cyclophosphamide therapy (50 mg/day) and plasma exchange (PE 10 times). In case 2 (a 58-year-old male), the initial signs developed as proteinuria and hematuria, followed by rapidly progressive renal functional deterioration and hemoptysis occurred. Compared to Case 1, the interval from onset to hospitalization was longer in Case 2 (125 days) and the CRN level was also higher (10.7 mg/dl). Case 2 was rated as full-circumferential, fibrous crescentic nephritis, and the patient was oliguric. Although the pulmonary impairment was reduced by pulse therapy and 10 PES, recovery of renal function has not been achieved, still necessitating maintenance hemodialysis at present. In case 1, the disease relapsed at 4.5 years after remission, presenting with aggravated renal function and hemoptysis. In this case, low-dose PSL therapy had been discontinued at 3 months before the relapse. Following the relapse, the pulmonary impairment was reduced by hemodialysis, PE and pulse therapy, but recovery of renal function has not been achieved, so necessitating maintenance hemodialysis. In general, the percentage of complete remission is high for GPS, but some patients showing relapse have also been reported. The anti-GBM antibody titer, whose determination has become possible in recent years, is expected to represent a useful index in the prevention of relapse of GPS and in the management of patients during gluco-corticoid therapy.
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