Combining the narrow-band imaging (NBI) system and magnifying endoscopy allows simple and clear visualization of microscopic structures of the superficial mucosa and its capillary patterns, which may be useful for precise endoscopic diagnosis in the gastrointestinal tract, being more closely to histopathological diagnosis. In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, there have been reports showing a potential usefulness of magnifying NBI for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, degree of histological gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia. We have shown that magnifying NBI appearances in the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa also predicts pepsinogen levels, which indicates extension of gastric atrophy in the entire stomach, and gastric cancer occurrence. Furthermore, we have shown that magnifying NBI appearances predicts the result of H. pylori treatment. Clear visualization of fine mucosal and capillary patterns, obtained by magnifying NBI, allows prediction of the histological condition, more in detail without biopsy, and it may also be useful for less invasive, and cost-effective endoscopic gastric cancer surveillance, and prediction of H. pylori eradication.
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