Validation study of the Japanese version of the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale and the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire

Kanako Kurihara, Shinsuke Fujioka, Yasuaki Mizutani, Hirohisa Watanabe, Kazuhiro Iwaoka, Tetsuya Maeda, Morinobu Seki, Toshiki Tezuka, Jin Nakahara, Takuya Konno, Takanobu Ishiguro, Osamu Onodera, Yuri Asano, Kazushi Takahashi, Alexandra Rizos, K. Ray Chaudhuri, Yoshio Tsuboi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale (KPPS)/King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Questionnaire (KPPQ) was developed as a tool to quantitatively assess pain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PwPD). Here, we conducted a Japanese multicenter validation study to verify the reliability of KPPS/KPPQ in Japanese PwPD. Methods: PwPD, ≥20 years, with unexplained pain were included; those with a definitive primary cause of pain other than PD were excluded. A total of 151 patients who fulfilled the criteria were analyzed, and test-retest reliability was investigated in 25 individuals. Results: The 151 patients included 101 women (66.9 %); mean age 68.3 ± 9.9 years, mean disease duration 9.2 ± 5.2 years. The most frequent pain type in the KPPS classification was musculoskeletal pain (82.8 %). There was a positive correlation between KPPS total score and the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) total score, NMSS item 27, the Parkinson's disease sleep scale-version 2 (PDSS-2) total score, PDSS-2 item 10, the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8) summary index and PDQ-8 item 7. Cronbach's alpha of KPPS was 0.626 (0.562–0.658) and the intraclass correlation coefficient of test-retest reliability was 0.740. Cronbach's alpha of KPPQ was 0.660 (0.617–0.705) and a test-retest reliability of kappa coefficient was 0.593 (0.0–1.0). Conclusions: KPPS correlated well with other scales for assessing pain. KPPS correlated well with patients' quality of life, non-motor symptoms, and sleep disturbances. The reproducibility of KPPS/KPPQ makes it suitable for continuous evaluation of the same patient. On the other hand, the internal consistency of KPPS/KPPQ is rather low.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106012
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
Publication statusPublished - 03-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology


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