X chromosome aneuploidies and schizophrenia: association analysis and phenotypic characterization

Itaru Kushima, Branko Aleksic, Hiroki Kimura, Masahiro Nakatochi, Tzuyao Lo, Masashi Ikeda, Makoto Arai, Ryota Hashimoto, Shusuke Numata, Yasunobu Okamura, Taku Obara, Toshiya Inada, Norio Ozaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Aim: The aims of the present study were: (i) to examine the association between schizophrenia (SCZ) and 47, XXY or 47, XXX in a large case–control sample; and (ii) to characterize the clinical features of patients with SCZ with these X chromosome aneuploidies. Methods: To identify 47, XXY and 47, XXX, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was performed in 3188 patients with SCZ and 3586 controls. We examined the association between 47, XXY and 47, XXX and SCZ in males and females separately using exact conditional tests to control for platform effects. Clinical data were retrospectively examined for patients with SCZ with X chromosome aneuploidies. Results: Of the analyzed samples, 3117 patients (97.8%) and 3519 controls (98.1%) passed our quality control. X chromosome aneuploidies were exclusively identified in patients: 47, XXY in seven patients (0.56%), 47, XXX in six patients (0.42%). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between SCZ and 47, XXY (P = 0.028) and 47, XXX (P = 0.011). Phenotypic data were available from 12 patients. Treatment-resistance to antipsychotics and manic symptoms were observed in six patients each (four with 47, XXY and two with 47, XXX for both), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that treatment-resistance to antipsychotics, mood stabilizer use, and manic symptoms were significantly more common in patients with 47, XXY than in male patients without pathogenic copy number variations. Conclusion: These findings indicate that both 47, XXY and 47, XXX are significantly associated with risk for SCZ. Patients with SCZ with 47, XXY may be characterized by treatment-resistance and manic symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667-673
Number of pages7
JournalPsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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