We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) concomitant with polyneuropathy associated with anti-lactosylceramide antibody. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with ophthalmoparesis, bulbar palsy, tetraplegia after suffering from upper respiratory infection and headache. Subsequently, he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI showed high intensities in the pons and medulla, and a nerve conduction study revealed motor-dominant axonal polyneuropathy. Although the laboratory tests revealed the presence of anti-lactosylceramide antibody in his serum, he was diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis concomitant with polyneuropathy. Whereas the intensive treatment with corticosteroids, plasmapharesis, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) brought a moderate improvement, his tetraparesis continued to exist.
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