We report a case of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), pleomorphic, medium and large cell type according to the updated Kiel classification, which was associated with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The patient showed an unusual involvement of the gastrointestinal tract forming a bulky mass during the course of his disease, and a relatively indolent clinical course for 53 months until death. Phenotypic analysis showed CD2+, CD3-, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, CD16-, CD56+, and CD57- phenotype. Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 antibody was detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proviral integration of HTLV-1 and the monoclonal rearrangements of T-cell receptor beta and gamma genes also were confirmed in DNA extract from fresh material. This fact calls attention to NCAM as one of the potential factors playing a role in the localization and behavior of lymphomas even within the category of PTCL associated with HTLV-1, ie, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
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