Background: PET (positron emission tomography) and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) provide the “ATN” (Amyloid, Tau, Neurodegeneration) classification and play an essential role in early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: Biomarkers were evaluated in a Japanese multicenter study on cognitively unimpaired subjects (CU) and early (E) and late (L) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Measurements: A total of 38 (26 CU, 7 EMCI, 5 LMCI) subjects with the age of 65–84 were enrolled. Amyloid-PET and FDG-PET as well as structural MRI were acquired on all of them, with an additional tau-PET with 18F-flortaucipir on 15 and CSF measurement of Aβ1–42, P-tau, and T-tau on 18 subjects. Positivity of amyloid and tau was determined based on the positive result of either PET or CSF. Results: The amyloid positivity was 13/38, with discordance between PET and CSF in 6/18. Cortical tau deposition quantified with PET was significantly correlated with CSF P-tau, in spite of discordance in the binary positivity between visual PET interpretation and CSF P-tau in 5/8 (PET−/CSF+). Tau was positive in 7/9 amyloid positive and 8/16 amyloid negative subjects who underwent tau measurement, respectively. Overall, a large number of subjects presented quantitative measures and/or visual read that are close to the borderline of binary positivity, which caused, at least partly, the discordance between PET and CSF in amyloid and/or tau. Nine subjects presented either tau or FDG-PET positive while amyloid was negative, suggesting the possibility of non-AD disorders. Conclusion: Positivity rate of amyloid and tau, together with their relationship, was consistent with previous reports. Multicenter study on subjects with very mild or no cognitive impairment may need refining the positivity criteria and cutoff level as well as strict quality control of the measurements.
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