Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of an oral anticancer fluoropyrimidine derivative, S-1, for previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: Patients with advanced (clinical stage IIIB-IV) NSCLC who had previously received one platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. S-1 was administered orally at the dosage decided by using the nomogram based on patient BSA b.i.d. for 28 consecutive days, repeated every 6 weeks. Results: Between August 2005 and July 2007, 50 patients were entered into this study. Six patients achieved partial response (PR), and the overall response rate of eligible patients was 12.5% (6/48) (95% confidence interval (95%CI), 3.1-21.9%). Disease control rate was 39.6% (19/48) (95%CI, 25.7-53.4%). Median progression-free survival was 2.5 months. Median survival time was 8.2 months, and 1-year survival rate was 29.6%. No grade 4 toxicities were encountered. Grade 3 hematological toxicities comprised neutropenia in one patient (2.1%) and anemia in one patient (2.1%). Grade 3 non-hematological toxicities were observed in only five patients (10.4%). Treatment-related death did not occur. Conclusion: S-1 is an active and well-tolerated monotherapy for second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC.
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