Patients with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis often show impaired immune function that aggravates infectious diseases. Some of the therapeutic recommendations for UTIs have been revised recently, partly because of the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria, mainly E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which vary from country to country or between regions in frequency of emergence and spread. An era of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has arrived, where the use of antibiotics should be reconsidered. Several newly established antimicrobial agents are commercially available for the treatment of resistant bacteria, such as penicillins or cephalosporins with beta-lactamase inhibitors. This new edition of Asian Association of UTI & STI (AAUS) guideline for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis includes new recommendations for antibiotic use based on changing trends in antibiotic resistance.
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