Objectives: Optimal selection of pretransplant conditioning is crucially vital for improving survival and quality-of-life of patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), particularly in those with high-risk diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of recently-developed reduced-toxicity myeloablative regimen that combines fludarabine, intravenous busulfan, and melphalan (FBM). Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 39 patients (23 with myeloid neoplasms and 16 with lymphoid neoplasms), with a median age of 50 (range, 17–68) years, who underwent their first allo-HCT using the FBM regimen. Graft types were bone marrow in 11, peripheral blood in 11, and cord blood in 17 patients. Cyclosporine- or tacrolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered. The primary end point of the study was the overall survival rate at 2-year after transplantation. Results: After a median follow-up of 910 days for the surviving patients, 2-year overall survival was 62% for the entire cohort; 73% in the low-to-intermediate-risk group and 44% in the high-to-very high-risk group classified by the refined CIBMTR Disease Risk Index. Cumulative incidences of engraftment, grade II-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality were 95%, 56%, 56%, 31%, and 17%, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that our FBM regimen can be applied to allo-HCT using various graft types and yields acceptable outcomes with relatively low non-relapse mortality in both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. Also, we observed a promising survival in the group of patients with high-risk diseases, warranting more accumulation of patients and longer follow-up.
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