In recent pediatric collaborative studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), patients with Down's syndrome (DS) have better outcome than other patients when they were treated according to their intensive AML protocols. This may be attributed to enhanced sensitivity of DS AML cells to selected chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated a less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen which was specifically designed for children with AML-DS. Remission induction chemotherapy consisted of daunorubicin (25 mg/m2/day for 2 days), cytosine arabinoside (100 mg/m2/day for 7 days), and etoposide (150 mg/m2/day for 3 days). Patients received one to seven courses of consolidation therapy of the same regimen. Thirty-three patients were enrolled on the study and their clinical, hematologic and immunophenotypic features were analyzed. Of the 33 patients, all were younger than 4 years and diagnnsed as having acute megakaryoblastic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. All patients achieved a complete remission and estimated 8 year event-free survival rate was 80 ± 7%. Three patients relapsed and two died due to cardiac toxicity and one due to septic shock. The results of our study showed that patients with AML-DS constitute a unique biologic subgroup and should be treated according to a less intensive protocol designed for AML-DS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes