Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the only virus known to integrate into human chromosomes and be transmitted from parents to offspring. Less than 1% of the population carries integrated HHV-6 in their genomes. Here,wereport the case of a 9-year-old Japanese girl with an extraordinarily high copynumber of HHV-6B in her genome. The integrated virus genomewas detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid and serum during the treatment of meningoencephalitis and pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, the HHV-6B genome was detected in hair follicle, plasma, and whole blood in the patient and her mother, but not in the patient's father. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the viral genome was integrated into chromosome 22. Therefore, these results emphasize the importance of screening for chromosomally integrated HHV-6 prior to starting unnecessary antiviral therapies, particularly for patients harboring HHV-6 with a high copy number.
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