Objectives: This study sought to provide an overview of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in dialysis patients from a Japanese nationwide registry. Background: Little is known about dialysis patients undergoing PCI because few are enrolled in clinical trials. Methods: We analyzed 624,900 PCI cases including 41,384 dialysis patients (6.6%) from 1,017 Japanese hospitals between 2014 and 2016. We investigated differences in characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between dialysis and nondialysis patients, and assessed factors associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Results: Dialysis patients had more comorbidities than nondialysis patients and higher rates of complications including in-hospital mortality (3.3% vs. 1.5%, respectively, in the acute coronary syndrome [ACS] cohort, 0.2% vs. 0.1% in the non-ACS cohort) and bleeding complications requiring blood transfusion (1.1% vs. 0.4% in ACS, 0.5% vs. 0.2% in non-ACS). Dialysis was significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–1.62 in ACS, OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.66–3.05 in non-ACS) and bleeding (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.30–1.96 in ACS, OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.27–1.88 in non-ACS). For dialysis patients, age, acute heart failure, and cardiogenic shock were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality in the ACS cohort, whereas age, female gender, and history of heart failure were associated with higher in-hospital mortality in the non-ACS cohort. Conclusions: PCI was widely performed for dialysis patients with either ACS or non-ACS in Japan. Dialysis patients had a greater risk of adverse outcomes than nondialysis patients after PCI.
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