Objective: To clarify the association between anesthetic technique and maternal and neonatal outcomes in parturients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study. Setting: An academic hospital. Participants: A total of 263 consecutive parturients with CHD who underwent cesarean section from 1994 to 2019. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The authors compared postpartum cardiovascular events (composite of heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmia, and thromboembolic complications) and neonatal outcomes (intubation and Apgar score <7 at one or five minutes) by anesthetic technique. Among 263 cesarean sections, general anesthesia was performed in 47 (17.9%) parturients and neuraxial anesthesia in 214 (81.3%) parturients. Cardiovascular events were more common in the general anesthesia group (n = 7; 14.9%) than in the neuraxial anesthesia group (n = 17; 7.9%). Generalized linear mixed models assuming a binomial distribution (ie, mixed-effects logistic regression), with a random intercept for each modified World Health Organization classification for maternal cardiovascular risk, revealed that general anesthesia was not significantly associated with cardiovascular events (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-3.29). In addition, general anesthesia was associated with composite neonatal outcomes (Apgar score <7 at one or five minutes or need for neonatal intubation; OR, 13.3; 95% CI, 5.52-32.0). Conclusion: Anesthetic technique is not significantly associated with postpartum composite cardiovascular events. General anesthesia is significantly associated with increased need for neonatal intubation and lower Apgar scores.
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