To propose an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial therapy for patients undergoing brachytherapy, we evaluated the relationships between various antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocols and the incidence of postimplant infections in a multicenter cohort study conducted in Japan. The records of 826 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent a transperineal 125I brachytherapy procedure between January 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative infections, including surgical site and remote infections, were recorded up to postoperative day 30. A total of 6 (0.73 %) patients had a perioperative infection following seed implantation, of whom all received AMP for 1 or more days. None of the patients who received a single-dose protocol of AMP using fluoroquinolone p.o. or penicillin with a beta-lactamase inhibitor i.v. developed a perioperative infection. Statistical analysis showed that a single-dose protocol was more significantly related to a lower risk of perioperative infection as compared to the other AMP protocols examined (p = 0.045). Furthermore, our results indicated that bacteriuria and preoperative hair removal were risk factors of perioperative infection with statistical significance (p = 0.007, p = 0.004). Analysis of patient clinical parameters, including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, diabetes mellitus, prostate volume, numbers of implanted seeds and needle punctures, operation time, and indwelling duration time of the Foley catheter, did not reveal significant differences in terms of perioperative infection. Our results indicated that a single-dose AMP protocol is sufficient to prevent perioperative infections following seed implantation. On the other hand, AMP is only one of several measures to prevent perioperative infectious complications. It is necessary to know that the patient must have no bacteriuria and that preoperative hair removal should be avoided.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes