The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognosis of Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) receiving nivolumab and to identify factors predicting the overall survival (OS) in this cohort of patients. This study retrospectively assessed the outcomes of 77 consecutive Japanese patients with mRCC who were treated using either 1 or 2 molecular-targeted agents followed by nivolumab in routine clinical practice. The best responses to nivolumab observed were as follows: Complete response in 3 patients, partial response in 27, stable disease in 33 and progressive disease in 14; therefore, the objective response rate in the 77 patients was 39.0%. During the median follow-up period of 11 months after the introduction of nivolumab, the median progression-free survival and OS were 7 months and not reached, respectively. On multivariate analysis of several parameters, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and neutrophil counts were demonstrated to be independently associated with OS in the 77 patients. By dividing these patients into 3 groups according to 3 risk factors, it was possible to stratify the OS; however, the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium model was unable to classify the OS. These results suggested that age, KPS and neutrophil counts were useful predictors of OS in previously treated patients with mRCC who received nivolumab.
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