Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide that is widely distributed in the brain, adrenal medulla, and sympathetic nervous system. Several lines of evidence suggest a possible involvement of the NPY system in the physiological effects of several classes of abused substances including alcohol, phencyclidine, cocaine, and marijuana and in endogenous psychosis. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that the NPY system may also be involved in methamphetamine dependence or psychosis. Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs16147 of the NPY gene (-485C>T) and rs7687423 of the NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) gene were analyzed in 222 patients with methamphetamine dependence and psychosis and 288 age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Genotypic distribution of the NPY1R gene showed a significant association with methamphetamine dependence and psychosis (P = 0.04), whereas the NPY gene had no significant association with them. Conclusion: It is possible that genetic variants of the NPY1R gene affect the NPY-NPY receptor type Y1 signaling system in the brain, which may result in susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence or the development of methamphetamine psychosis, but the present findings need to be confirmed on replication.
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