Recent preclinical findings that repeated treatment with methamphetamine (METH) induced an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA in some brain regions and that TNF-α blocked METH neurotoxicity and rewarding effects suggest TNF-α, a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine, may be involved in METH dependence. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene and its receptor genes may be associated with vulnerability to METH dependence. Genetic association of -308G>A and -857C>T in the promotor region of the TNF-α gene, and 36A>G in exon 1 of the TNF receptor 1A gene (TNFR-SF1A), were analyzed in patients with METH dependence (n = 185) and healthy controls (n = 221) in a Japanese population. No significant association of alleles or haplotypes of the TNF-α or TNFR-SF1A genes with METH dependence was found. Neither was any significant association of clinical phenotype with METH dependence found. These results suggest that genetic variations in the TNF-α gene and its receptor genes may not be involved in individual vulnerability to METH dependence.