We previously reported that risk-stratified therapy and intensive postremission chemotherapy (PRC) contributed to the improved survival of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the AML99 study, which led us to consider a reduction in the number of PRC courses with more restrictive indications for stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the successor AML-05 study. We here report the outcome of AML patients without core-binding factor mutation (non-CBF AML) in the AML-05 study. Two-hundred eighty-nine children (age < 18 years old) with non-CBF AML were eligible. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics and/or poor bone marrow response to the first induction course were candidates for SCT in the AML-05 study. After two courses of induction, a further three courses of PRC were given in AML-05, while four courses were given in the AML99 study. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate in the AML-05 study (46.7%, 95% CI: 40.6-52.6%) was comparable to that of non-CBF AML in the AML99 study (51.5%, 95% CI: 42.7-59.6%) (P =.16). However, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate in the AML-05 study (62.9%, 95% CI: 56.3-68.8%) was slightly lower than that in the AML99 study (71.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-78.5%) (P =.060), mainly due to decreased remission induction rate and increased nonrelapsed mortality. In conclusion, reductions in the number of PRC courses from four to three, together with repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine, were acceptable for non-CBF childhood AML.
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