Background: The use of the bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITAs) during myocardial revascularization reportedly provides a survival benefit over using a single internal thoracic artery (SITA). However, the advantages in chronic hemodialysis patients, who generally have multiple comorbidities, is unclear. Methods: Outcomes of chronic hemodialysis patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using a SITA with additional saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) (n = 33) or BITAs (n = 30) for left-side revascularization were retrospectively reviewed. Results: With the exception of the rate of diabetes mellitus (SITA vs. BITA: 84.8% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.003), the two groups showed similar patient characteristics. Using the off-pump technique, revascularization was completed without manipulation of the ascending aorta in 45.7% of patients in the BITA group, whereas all patients in the SITA group required aortic manipulation (p < 0.001). Of note, the incidence of extensive aortic calcification (>50% of ascending aorta circumference) was not uncommon (14.3%). The in-hospital mortality (3.0% vs. 0%, p = 0.336) and complication rates (including deep wound infection, re-exploration and stroke) were similar in both groups. The 5-year estimated survival rates for freedom from overall death in the SITA and BITA groups were 42.4% and. 57.4%, respectively (p = 0.202). Conclusions: BITA grafting was able to achieve revascularization with minimal manipulation of the diseased ascending aorta without increasing the complication rate. The long-term survival benefit of BITA grafting, however, was unclear in dialysis patients, especially because such patients have a relatively short life expectancy.
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