Purpose: To identify biochemical factors associated with liver enhancement over time on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images and predict the optimal time point of the hepatobiliary phase in various clinical settings. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review boards, and written informed consent was obtained from the 1903 patients enrolled. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the biochemical factors associated with liver-to-spleen contrast (LSC) of at least 1.5 in the hepatobiliary phase. Changes in LSC and lesion-to-liver contrast (LLC) of lesions over time (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes) were investigated with a linear mixedeffects model in patients and lesions. For LSC, the optimal cutoff value was determined with receiver operating characteristic analysis of the most significant variable. Differences in LSC and LLC were analyzed in various clinical settings. Results: Ultimately, 1870 patients were evaluated, as 33 were excluded according to study criteria. Prothrombin (PT) activity, total bilirubin level (P = .020), and total cholesterol level (P = .005) were significantly associated with LSC of at least 1.5 at 20 minutes, and PT activity was identified as the most significant factor (odds ratio, 1.271; 95% confidence interval: 1.109, 1.455; P = .001). LSC of at least 1.5 at 20 minutes with PT activity of at least 86.9% and less than 86.9% occurred in 555 of 626 patients (88.6%) and 388 of 575 patients (67.5%), respectively. Satisfactory liver enhancement at 20 minutes was significantly more likely to be achieved by patients with hepatitis B virus than by those with hepatitis C virus (P <.001) and by patients with metastasis than by those with hepatocellular carcinoma (P <.001). No significant difference in LLC was observed in patients examined at 1.5 and 3.0 T (P = .133). Conclusion: Hepatic enhancement is significantly associated with PT activity, total bilirubin level, and total cholesterol level. PT activity of at least 86.9% could be used to shorten examination times at Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging.
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