Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (Ido), which catalyzes the first and limiting step of tryptophan catabolism, has been implicated in immune tolerance. However, the roles of Ido in systemic bacterial infection are complicated and remain controversial. To explore this issue, we examined the roles of Ido in bacterial peritonitis and sepsis after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice by using the Ido inhibitor 1-methyl-D,L-tryptophan (1-MT), by comparing Ido+/+ and Ido-/- mice, or by using chimeric mice in which Ido in the bone marrow-derived cells was deficient. Ido expression in the peritoneal CD11b+ cells and its metabolite Lkynurenine in the serum were increased after CLP. 1-MT treatment or Ido deficiency, especially in bone marrow-derived cells, reduced mortality after CLP. Compared to Ido+/+ mice, Ido-/- mice showed increased recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells into the peritoneal cavity and a decreased bacterial count in the blood accompanied by increased CXCL-2 and CXCL-1 mRNA in the peritoneal cells. Ido has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced CXCL-2 and CXCL-1 production in cultured peritoneal cells. These findings indicate that inhibition of Ido reduces mortality from peritonitis and sepsis after CLP via recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells by chemokine production in peritoneal CD11b+ cells. Thus, blockade of Ido plays a beneficial role in host protection during bacterial peritonitis and sepsis.
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