Background: The relationship between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and the intestinal environment is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of the intestinal environment in PDAC. Methods: We performed a case-control study of 5 Japanese patients with unresectable PDAC located in the body or tail (PDAC-bt). The number of patients analyzed was limited for this preliminary study. We included 68 healthy subjects, herein control, of pre-printed study in the preliminary study. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and metabolomic analysis were performed using fecal samples from the subjects. Results: There was no difference in the Shannon index and Principal Coordinate Analysis between PDAC-bt and the control. However, a significant increase in oral-associated bacteria (Actinomyces, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Lactobacillus) was observed. A significant decrease of Anaerostipes was demonstrated in the feces of PDAC-bt compared with the control. The intestinal propionic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly lower in PDAC-bt compared with the control. Conclusions: We showed that the intestinal environment of PDAC-bt is characterized by an increase in oral-associated bacteria and an imbalance of metabolites but without changes in alpha and beta diversity of the gut microbiota profiles. Clinical Trial Registration: www.umin.ac.jp, UMIN 000041974, 000023675, 000023970.
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