Background Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), a novel technique initially introduced as a treatment for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, is now increasingly being performed in a broader spectrum of patients. Here, we performed a time-trend analysis of the characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients who underwent BPA in Japan, using data extracted from nationwide procedure-based registration system. Methods The Japanese Structural Heart Disease (J-SHD) registry was established and sponsored by the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics and aims to provide basic statistics on the performance of structural interventions in Japan. J-SHD registers cases from approximately 200 institutions, representing more than 90% of SHD intervention-performing hospitals in the nation. We analysed the registered BPA data elements from January 2015 to December 2018. Successful BPA was defined as a session in which a physician successfully treated all targeted lesions. Results There were a total of 2512 BPA sessions; the number of institutions and registered sessions increased from 30 to 50 sites and from 479 to 852 sessions during the study period, respectively. The average age of the patients was 66±13 years, and 72.1% were women. In-hospital death was observed in 0.2%, and the total complications rate was 5.3%. The preoperative and postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure were 32±11 mm Hg and 30±10 mm Hg, respectively. Conclusion The number of BPA sessions increased during the study period, with an acceptable in-hospital complication rate.
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