BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has recently been recognized as a cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially in young women. However, the characteristics, optimal treatment, and prognosis of patients who experience SCAD have not been fully described. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a multicenter registry. Among 187 young women less than 60 years of age who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, 19 (10.2%) with SCAD were identified through coronary angiography. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Those with SCAD less frequently exhibited coronary risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking, than those without SCAD. Intense emotional and/or physical stress was more frequently observed as a prominent precipitating factor in cases of SCAD. All 19 SCAD patients presented with ACS, 7 of whom were treated using stents, and the other 12 treated without stents. During a median follow-up of 960 days (interquartile range, 686-1504 days), two recurrent coronary artery dissections occurred within 7 days, both of which occurred in a vessel other than that in which primary dissection occurred. There were no deaths or recurrent dissection after 1 week. CONCLUSION: SCAD was not uncommon among young Japanese women requiring percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with SCAD exhibited fewer coronary risk factors and more precipitating factors than those without SCAD, and long-term clinical outcomes after an early period appeared to be favorable.
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