Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and anosmia. Here, we present 3 cases of KS with detailed description. In Case 1, testicular morphology was examined by testicular biopsy, and Leydig cells were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Ad4BP/SF1. Contrary to our predictions, the present study revealed the presence of Leydig cells in the testis. Testicular morphology in the patients with KS is more varied than expected, and further investigation is required to elucidate hormonal effects on normal testicular development.
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