Objective: Presepsin is highlighted as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of sepsis. Little information is available regarding the accurate association between presepsin levels and the degree of kidney function. We analyzed presepsin levels in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the categories G1 to G5, evaluated via inulin renal clearance test, and receiving hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Patients who were not receiving HD were included if they had undergone inulin renal clearance measurements for the accurate measurement of GFR (measured GFR), and patients who were receiving hemodialysis (HD) were included if they had anuria. Exclusion criteria were infection, cancer, liver disease, autoimmune disorders, or steroid or immunosuppressant use. GFR category was defined as follows; G1: GFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2, G2: GFR = 60 to 90 ml/min/1.73m2, G3: GFR = 30 to 60 ml/min/1.73m2, G4: GFR = 15 to 30 ml/min/1.73m2, G5: GFR ≤ 15 ml/min/1.73m2. Results: Seventy-one patients were included. The median (IQR) presepsin values of patients in each GFR category were as follows: G1 + G2: 69.8 (60.8-85.9) pg/ml; G3: 107.0 (68.7-150.0) pg/ml; G4: 171.0 (117.0-200.0) pg/ml; G5: 251.0 (213.0-297.5) pg/ml; and HD: 1160.0 (1070.0-1400.0) pg/ml. The log-transformed presepsin values, excluding patients receiving HD, inversely correlated with the measured GFR (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.687, P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that measured GFR and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with elevated presepsin levels. Conclusion: Presepsin levels were markedly high in patients receiving HD, similar to values seen in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In patients who were not receiving HD, presepsin levels increased as GFR decreased. Thus, the evaluation of presepsin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease requires further consideration, and a different cutoff value is needed for diagnosing sepsis in such patients.
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