Aim: The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab (RAM) in clinical practice as post-treatment, following atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (Atz/Bev) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of ≥400 ng/ml. Patients and Methods: Of the 77 patients treated with Atz/Bev at our institution, 13 patients for whom RAM was introduced as post-treatment following Atz/Bev were enrolled in this retrospective study. There were 9 patients (69.2%) with Child-Pugh A and 11 patients (84.6%) for whom RAM was initiated as 3rd- or later-line therapy. The median AFP level was 2259 ng/ml. Results: The objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours at 6 weeks was 15.4%, and the disease control rate was 69.2%. The median time to progression was 3.0 months; AFP level decreased at 2 weeks in 11 patients (84.6%) and at 6 weeks in seven patients (53.8%). The most common adverse events (AEs) within 6 weeks were ascites, peripheral oedema, and proteinuria, while grade 3 AEs occurred in six patients (46.2%). Albumin-bilirubin scores at both 4 and 6 weeks were significantly worse than those at baseline. Conclusion: In HCC patients with AFP levels of ≥400 ng/mL, RAM after Atz/Bev is expected to be an effective treatment option. Careful attention should be paid to the development of AEs and deterioration of liver function, especially when RAM is used as 3rd- or later-line therapy. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of RAM as 2nd-line treatment after Atz/Bev in Child-Pugh A patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes