The efficacy of treatment for intraventricular hematoma by neuroendoscopic surgery and extraventricular drainage was compared in 10 patients with intraventricular hematoma and hydrocephalus who underwent neuroendoscopic surgery (endoscopic group), and eight patients with intraventricular hematoma and hydrocephalus treated with extraventricular drainage (EVD group). The outcomes in each group were assessed retrospectively using the Graeb scores on the pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT), duration of extraventricular drainage, requirement for a shunt operation, and modified Rankin scale score at 12 months. The Graeb scores on the preoperative CT were not significantly different between the two groups, but the duration of catheter placement was significantly shorter (69.3%) in the endoscopic group (2.7 days) than in the EVD group (8.8 days). None of the patients in either group required a shunt procedure for communicating hydrocephalus 12 months after surgery. Neuroendoscopic removal is a safe and effective procedure for intraventricular hematoma. Advantages include rapid removal of hematoma in the ventricular systems and reliable improvement of non-communicating hydrocephalus in the acute phase. The procedure resulted in faster removal of the catheter in the postoperative period and earlier patient ambulation.
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