Although piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) was shown to be less effective than carbapenems in treating bacteremia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL)-producing organisms in a randomized controlled trial, the fact that many of the causative organisms co-produced inhibitor-resistant OXA-1 along with ESBLs may have influenced the results. In this study, we compared the therapeutic effectiveness of TZP and carbapenem in treating ESBL-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia in areas with low frequency of OXA-1 co-production. Forty patients, 14 in the TZP treatment group and 26 in the carbapenem treatment group, were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient background between the two groups. Urinary tract infection or cholangitis was the source of bacteremia in 26 patients (65%), and the Pitt bacteremia score was zero or one in 35 patients (87.5%). Only four (11.4%) of the 35 causative isolates available for microbiological analysis harbored blaOXA-1, and only three (8.6%) were non-susceptible to TZP. Seventeen (48.6%) isolates carried blaCTX-M-27, none of which carried other β-lactamase genes. No significant difference in the frequency of treatment failure on day 14 of bacteremia was documented between the TZP and carbapenem treatment groups in both the crude analysis and the inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted analysis. This study demonstrates that TZP may be a treatment option for non-severe cases of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia in areas with low frequency of OXA-1 co-production.
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