Background: Given the rapid expansion in the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), recent outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) should be re-evaluated. Methods and Results: Using the data from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database of 160 enrolled hospitals, trends in elective isolated SAVR were evaluated until the introduction of TAVI in Japan. Trend analyses were performed over 4 periods: period 1, 2008-2009 (4,415 cases); period 2, 2010-2011 (4,861 cases); period 3, 2012-2013 (5,674 cases); and period 4, 2014-2015 (5,563 cases). Baseline risk, evaluated on JapanSCORE, increased significantly over the 4 periods, from a median of 1.56 (IQR, 0.99-2.61) in period 1 to 2.08 (IQR, 1.33-3.96) in period 4 (P<0.001, trend test). Despite the increased risk, the composite major complication and operative mortality rate decreased significantly (10.7% in period 1 to 9.2% in period 4, P=0.01). Using a risk-adjusted model, the OR of operative mortality was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.29-2.02) in period 1 (P<0.0001) compared with period 4. An increase in the use of bioprostheses was also observed, from 60.4% to 76.8% (P<0.001) over the 4 periods. Conclusions: Even in a short 8-year period, SAVR outcomes improved in Japan. This should be taken into account when discussing the indications for aortic valve intervention.
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