Surgical stress induces hyperglycemia and gives rise to glucose toxicity, which causes infectious diseases, resulting in unfavorable surgical outcomes. Intensive insulin treatment can control short- and long-term complications in patients with not only diabetes mellitus, but also surgical diabetes; however, it is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. The wearable artificial pancreas was originally developed to control glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes, progressing to a device with enhanced stability and safety for these patients. Its usability has further progressed to include patients with type 2 diabetes. The bedside artificial pancreas is the only closed-loop-type artificial pancreas which can maintain stable glycemic control in accordance with a target blood glucose range, based on the patient’s actual blood glucose levels. Moreover, this stable glycemic control with a low variation in blood glucose concentration within the target range is produced without any hypoglycemia. Significant advances of this device will now occur due to the approval of treatment for perioperative glycemic control by the Japanese Health Care Insurance System in 2016. Along with an increase in the number of mainly elderly patients with low glucose tolerance, it is expected that the role of the artificial pancreas will increase in the future. Considering the current state and expense of regenerative and transplant medicine, along with donor shortages, further development of the artificial pancreas and associated glycemic control can be expected.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine