Infection during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a common complication that leads to increased mortality. Thus, antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO is often performed to prevent of nosocomial infections. However, the current status of antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO in Japan is unclear. Therefore, we conducted a national survey of members of the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (JSICM) to clarify the current status of antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO in intensive care units. An 11-question survey was devised to assess antimicrobial prophylaxis and surveillance practices during ECMO. A total of 253 hospitals responded. Of these, 235 hospitals were the JSICM-certified hospitals, and the response rate was 64%. A total of 96 hospitals (39%) administered antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO, and 17% of hospitals had a standardized protocol for antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO. Of these 96 hospitals, 79% used single agents. First-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly used (54%), followed by penicillins or penicillin-derived combinations (24%), second-generation cephalosporins (7%), and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents (6%). In conclusion, our survey revealed 39% of hospitals administered antimicrobial prophylaxis during ECMO in Japan. First-generation cephalosporins were the agents most commonly used.
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