The cytologic appearance of endosalpingiosis in peritoneal fluid cytology smears has not been extensively described. We report a case of endosalpingiosis in a 29-year-old pregnant female who presented with peritoneal fluid. Dense papillary epithelial clusters with indistinct ciliated cells were found in the Papanicolaoustained smears. However, long and delicate cilia were obvious in papillary cluster with scanning electron microscopy. Cell nuclei were oval, with finely dispersed chromatin and uniform nuclear membrane. Peritoneal fluid cytology with these findings may be helpful to suggest the probable preoperative diagnosis of endosalpingiosis or benign glandular inclusions involving the pelvic peritoneum.
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