Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft tissue tumors that affect adults. Liposarcoma is typically identified in the retroperitoneum, trunk and extremities as a slow-growing mass, yet is rare in the thyroid gland. Herein, we report a case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma that developed in the thyroid gland, and performed a literature review. A 66-year-old male with a history of well-differentiated liposarcoma in the thymus presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the thyroid gland. Malignancy was suspected due to the local extension of the tumor, and complete resection of the tumor was achieved. Tissue diagnosis from the tumor following surgery revealed that dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and tumor progression was difficult to control with adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case to report dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the thyroid gland, and the difficulty in initial diagnosis as well as the aggressive features of dedifferentiated liposarcoma are highlighted.
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