Hippocampus-associated cognitive impairments are a common, highly conserved symptom of both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). Although the hippocampus is likely an impacted region in SCZ/BPD patients, the molecular and cellular underpinnings of these impairments are difficult to identify. An emerging class of mouse models for these psychiatric diseases display similar cognitive impairments to those observed in human patients. The hippocampi of these mice possess a conserved pathophysiological alteration; we term the 'immature dentate gyrus' (iDG), characterized by increased numbers of calretinin-positive immature neuronal progenitors, a dearth of calbindin-positive mature neurons and (often) constitutively increased neurogenesis. Although these models provide a link between cellular dysfunction and behavioral alteration, limited translational validity exists linking the iDG to human pathophysiology. In this study, we report the initial identification of an iDG-like phenotype in the hippocampi of human SCZ/BPD patients. These findings suggest a new motif for the etiology of these diseases and link an emerging class of mouse models to the human disease condition.
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