Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare extra-nodal lymphoma of the central nervous system. Primary central nervous system lymphoma lesions usually appear in the vicinity of the ventricle, and there are few reports of primary central nervous system lymphoma with hypothalamic-pituitary lesions. Case presentation: We treated a 56-year-old male with primary central nervous system lymphoma with the primary lesion in the hypothalamus, which was found by magnetic resonance imaging after sudden onset of endocrinological abnormalities. Initially, he was hospitalized to our department for hyponatremia. Endocrinological examination in conjunction with head magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic biopsy revealed hypothalamic hypopituitarism and tertiary hypoadrenocorticism caused by a rapidly growing, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the hypothalamus. Remission of the tumor was achieved by high-dose methotrexate with whole brain radiotherapy, and some of the hormone responses were normalized. Conclusions: While primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare, it is important to note that hypopituitarism can result and that the endocrinological abnormalities can be partially restored by its remission.
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