Background: Although lifestyle modifications are known to be effective in type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as in prediabetes, adherence to a healthy diet is difficult for some, and interventions of lifestyle modifications need to be revised occasionally. Meal sequence has been gaining attention as a part of a healthy diet among T2D individuals to improve glycemia and body weight. In addition, a dietary instruction program, SMART Washoku®, which can help individuals to consume a more nutritionally balanced diet, has been developed. Methods: The current exploratory trial was designed to examine the effects of dietary instructions focusing on meal sequence and nutritional balance in individuals with prediabetes in the Japanese national health check-up and guidance program. Participants were cluster-randomized into three groups: Group A, receiving a conventional health guidance program (n = 11); Group B, receiving health guidance with dietary instructions focusing on meal sequence (n = 18); and Group C, receiving health guidance with dietary instructions focusing on nutritional balance (n = 13). Participants received health guidance education and various measurements before and 6 months after the instructions. Results: Body weight in Group B was significantly reduced compared to that in Group A, with similar adherence, while the effects on glycemia were similar between the two Groups. Body weight reduction was greater in Group C compared to that in Group A, although adherence in Group C was significantly lower than that in Group A. Conclusion: The group receiving health guidance with dietary instructions focusing on meal sequence exhibited similar adherence and greater reduction in body weight than the group receiving conventional health guidance.
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