Purpose To determine the capability and influence of the mathematical method on dynamic contrast-enhanced (CE-) perfusion area detector CT (ADCT) for early prediction of treatment response as well as progression free and overall survival (PFS and OS) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods Sixty-six consecutive stage III NSCLC patients underwent dynamic CE-perfusion ADCT examinations, chemoradiotherapy and follow-up examinations. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria were used to divide all patients into responders and non-responders. Differences in each of the indices for all targeted lesions between measurements obtained 2 weeks prior to the first and the third course of chemotherapy were determined for all patients. ROC analyses were employed to determine the capability of perfusion indices as markers for distinguishing RECIST responders from non-responders. To evaluate their capability for early prediction of therapeutic effect, OS of perfusion index-based responders and non-responders were compared by using the Kaplan-Meier method followed by log-rank test. Results Area under the curve (Az) for total perfusion by means of the dual-input maximum slope method was significantly larger than that of pulmonary arterial perfusion using the same method (p = 0.007) and of perfusion with the single-input maximum slope method (p = 0.007). Mean OS demonstrated significantly difference between responder- and non-responder groups for total perfusion (p = 0.02). Conclusion Mathematical models have significant influence on assessment for early prediction of treatment response, disease progression and overall survival using dynamic CE-perfusion ADCT for NSCLC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.
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