Objective: Quantitative analyses of gamma-ray accumulation in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the evaluation of antiresorptive agent-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) have been reported recently. However, the relationship between the quantitative parameters calculated from SPECT and the detailed morphological changes observed in computed tomography (CT) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate patients’ characteristics and morphological changes observed on CT, and their effects on the quantitative values in SPECT. Methods: From April 2017 to March 2019, patients diagnosed with ARONJ at our hospital were enrolled. The data obtained before September 2017 were reviewed retrospectively, and other data were collected prospectively. CT scans were evaluated for internal texture, sequestrum formation, periosteal reaction, cortical perforation, bone expansion, and pathological fracture. For quantitative assessment, the ratio of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) to the mean SUV in the temporal bone (rSUVmax) was calculated from SPECT images. The factors affecting rSUVmax were investigated by multiple regression analysis. The statistical significance level was set at α = 0.05. Results: Overall, 55 lesions of 42 patients (median age and interquartile range, 75 [67–80 years], 27 female) were evaluated. Male sex (p = 0.007) and bilateral location (p < 0.0001) were selected as variables in the multivariate analysis. Adjusted coefficient of determination R2 was 0.59 (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Sex and horizontal progression of the disease may affect individually calibrated SUVs in SPECT for patients with ARONJ.
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