Importance: The efficacy of taxane plus platinum regimens has been demonstrated for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer; however, it has not been assessed in postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Objective: To evaluate the clinical benefit of taxane plus platinum compared with standard doxorubicin plus cisplatin as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in endometrial cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter, open-label, phase 3 randomized clinical trial, patients with endometrial cancer at high-risk stage I or II or stage III or IV that did not extend beyond the abdominal cavity and had 2 cm or greater residual tumor were included from 118 institutions in Japan from November 24, 2006, to January 7, 2011. Data was analyzed from March 15, 2017, to June 30, 2017. Interventions: Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 6 cycles of doxorubicin, 60 mg/m2, plus cisplatin, 50 mg/m2, on day 1; docetaxel, 70 mg/m2, plus cisplatin, 60 mg/m2, on day 1; or paclitaxel, 180 mg/m2, plus carboplatin (area under the curve, 6.0 mg/mL × min) on day 1 every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points were overall survival, occurrence of adverse events, tolerability, and status of lymph node dissection. Results: Among 788 eligible patients, the median (SD) age was 59 (22-74) years; 263 patients were assigned to doxorubicin plus cisplatin treatment, 263 patients to docetaxel plus cisplatin treatment, and 262 patients to paclitaxel plus carboplatin treatment. The number of patients who did not complete 6 cycles was 53 (20.1%) for the doxorubicin plus cisplatin group, 45 (17.1%) for the docetaxel plus cisplatin group, and 63 (24.0%) for the paclitaxel plus carboplatin group. Tolerability of these regimens were not statistically different. After a median follow-up period of 7 years, there was no statistical difference of progression-free survival (doxorubicin plus cisplatin, 191; docetaxel plus cisplatin, 208; paclitaxel plus carboplatin, 187; P =.12) or overall survival (doxorubicin plus cisplatin, 217; docetaxel plus cisplatin, 223; paclitaxel plus carboplatin, 215; P =.67) among the 3 groups. The 5-year progression-free survival rate was 73.3% for the doxorubicin plus cisplatin group, 79.0% for the docetaxel plus cisplatin group, and 73.9% for the paclitaxel plus carboplatin group, while the 5-year overall survival rates were 82.7%, 88.1%, and 86.1%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: There was no significant difference of survival among patients receiving doxorubicin plus cisplatin, docetaxel plus cisplatin, or paclitaxel plus carboplatin as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Because each regimen showed adequate tolerability but different toxic effects, taxane plus platinum regimens may be a reasonable alternative to treatment with doxorubicin plus cisplatin. Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR identifier: UMIN000000522.
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